Dyspraxia is a neurological disorder that impacts an individual's ability to plan and process motor tasks. Individuals with dyspraxia often have language problems, and sometimes a degree of difficulty with thought and perception. Dyspraxia, however, does not affect the person's intelligence, although it can cause learning problems in children. Developmental dyspraxia is an immaturity of the organization of movement. The brain does not process information in a way that allows for a full transmission of neural messages. Experts say that about 10 percent of people have some degree of dyspraxia, while approximately 2 percent have it severely.
Four out of every 5 children with evident dyspraxia are boys, although there is some debate as to whether dyspraxia might be under-diagnosed in girls. Symptoms tend to vary depending on the age of the individual. Later, we will look at each age group in more detail.
Some of the general symptoms of dyspraxia include:. A diagnosis of dyspraxia can be made by a clinical psychologist, an educational psychologist, a pediatrician, or an occupational therapist. Any parent who suspects their child may have dyspraxia should see their doctor. When carrying out an assessment, details will be required regarding the child's developmental history, intellectual ability, and gross and fine motor skills:.
The evaluator will need to know when and how developmental milestones, such as walking, crawling, and speaking were reached.
The child will be evaluated for balance, touch sensitivity, and variations on walking activities. Dyspraxia symptoms may vary depending on age. With that in mind, we will look at each age individually. Not every individual will have all of the symptoms outlined below:. There may also be a lack of awareness of potential dangers. Many experience moods swings and display erratic behavior. Researchers at the University of Bolton in England say that there is often a tendency to take things literally " the child may listen but not understand.
Scientists do not know what causes dyspraxia. Experts believe the person's nerve cells that control muscles motor neurons are not developing correctly. If motor neurons cannot form proper connections, for whatever reason, the brain will take much longer to process data.
A report from the University of Hull in England says that dyspraxia is " probably hereditary : several genes have been implicated. Often, there are many members within a family who are similarly affected. Although dyspraxia is not curable, with treatment, the individual can improve. However, the earlier a child is diagnosed, the better their prognosis will be. The following specialists most commonly treat people with dyspraxia:. An occupational therapist will evaluate how the child manages with everyday functions both at home and at school. They will then help the child develop skills specific to daily activities which they find difficult.
The speech-language pathologist will conduct an assessment of the child's speech, and then implement a treatment plan to help them to communicate more effectively. This involves improving the child's language, visual, movement, and auditory skills. The individual is set a series of tasks that gradually become more advanced - the aim is to challenge the child so that they improve, but not so much that it becomes frustrating or stressful. In a study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine , a team of Irish, British, and Swedish researchers evaluated the effects of equine therapy therapeutic horse-riding on a group of 40 children aged years with dyspraxia.
The children participated in six horse-riding sessions lasting 30 minutes each, as well as two minute audiovisual screening sessions. They found that riding therapy stimulated and improved the participants' cognition, mood, and gait parameters. The authors added that "the data also pointed to the potential value of an audiovisual approach to equine therapy. Experts say that active play - any play that involves physical activity - which can be outdoors or inside the home, helps improve motor activity.
Are enough details provided of any physical examination and diagnostic tests, treatment given and outcomes? Is sufficient discussion included of the importance of the findings and their relevance to future understanding of disease processes, diagnosis or treatment? Is the case presented with sufficient detail to be useful for other practitioners? Competing Interests: No competing interests were disclosed.
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Neural correlates of cognitive impairment in posterior cortical atrophy. However, for many parents in a similar situation this is not the case. J Neuropsychol ; 8 — Figure 2. Tell Me About It: You must decide whether to tell your half-sister about contacting her twin. Includes Interactive Elements. Treatment of apraxia generally consists of speech therapy , occupational therapy , or physical therapy.
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Research paper. Samrah Ahmed,1 Ian Baker,2 Sian Thompson,3 Masud Husain, 1,4 and Christopher R Butler1. Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a subtype of speech sound disorder that Much behavioral research has been conducted on CAS, but few studies have Whereas work by Liégeois et al () observed reduced activation for family.
We have sent an email to , please follow the instructions to reset your password. FPrime FWorkspace item :. Home Browse Case Report: Corpus callosal apraxia following acute ischemic stroke.
ALL Metrics. Get PDF. Get XML. How to cite this article. NOTE: it is important to ensure the information in square brackets after the title is included in all citations of this article. Close Copy Citation Details. Case Report: Corpus callosal apraxia following acute ischemic stroke [version 1; peer review: 1 not approved].
The corpus callosum is a compact structure that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Here we report the case of a 50 year old woman who presented with features of corpus callosum apraxia, initially mistaken as psychiatric symptom by her relatives. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of brain confirmed the diagnosis of acute ischemic infarct in the body of the corpus callosum.
Isolated stroke involving the corpus callosum is rarely reported in literature and is a diagnostic challenge due to atypical clinical features. Keywords Corpus callosum,apraxia,disconnection syndrome,stroke. Corresponding Author s. Santhosh Narayanan drsanthosh4 gmail. Grant information: The author s declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.
Introduction Corpus callosum contains densely packed white matter tracts essential for coordination and integration of the two sides of brain. Case report A 50 year old woman presented with a history of abrupt onset of numbness on the left side of her body. Figure 1. Computed tomography scan of the brain showing infarct in corpus callosum. Figure 2. T2 FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showing hyperintensity in the body of corpus callosum sparing the rostrum, genu and splenium white arrow.
Discussion The corpus callosum contains the white matter bundle that connects the interhemispheric neurons and serves to connect the cortical and subcortical structures of the brain. Consent Written informed consent for publication of their clinical details and clinical images was obtained from the patient. Data availability All data underlying the results are available as part of the article and no additional source data are required.
Competing interests No competing interests were disclosed. Grant information The author s declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work. F recommended References 1. J Clin Neurosci. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. PubMed Abstract 5. BMC Neurol. Suwanwela NC, Leelacheavasit N: Isolated corpus callosal infarction secondary to pericallosal artery disease presenting as alien hand syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Looking for the Open Peer Review Reports?
Comments on this article Comments 0. Article Versions 1 version 1. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Manager RIS Sente. Narayanan S and Subramaniam G. Track an article to receive email alerts on any updates to this article. Approved with reservations Key revisions are required to address specific details and make the paper fully scientifically sound.
Not approved Fundamental flaws in the paper seriously undermine the findings and conclusions. How to cite this report:. NOTE: it is important to ensure the information in square brackets after the title is included in this citation. Not Approved. VIEWS 0. The authors point out that focal damage to the corpus callosum is rare and may present a diagnostic challenge. I only partly agree, as damage to the corpus callosum is at least occasionally observed following ischemic stroke to one of the pericallosal arteries, though in this case the damage is often not confined to the corpus callosum, but also involves medial frontal cortex and cingulate cortex.
I also think that such injury presents only a diagnostic challenge when the examiner does not specifically focus on symptoms of callosal disconnection. The body and genu of the corpus callosum carry fibers connecting pre-motor and parietal cortices of the two cerebral hemispheres which are necessary for the coordination of bilateral actions. When reading this case report I was surprised to notice that the authors observed apraxia of the left hand, but did not examine callosal transfer by asking the patient to execute bilateral actions.
Besides alien hand syndrome, corpus callosum damage is known to result in diagonistic dyspraxia. Similarly to alien hand syndrome, this disorder suggests an impairment of voluntary control, and some patients report that their hand feels disobedient or has 'its own personality'. Such impairments appear sufficiently mysterious to be mistaken as psychiatric symptoms. The current case is interesting because of the isolated corpus callosum damage, but one would have wished a thorough examination of disconnection signs other than unilateral apraxia.
Partly Are enough details provided of any physical examination and diagnostic tests, treatment given and outcomes? No Is sufficient discussion included of the importance of the findings and their relevance to future understanding of disease processes, diagnosis or treatment? No Is the case presented with sufficient detail to be useful for other practitioners? Ptak R. Reviewer Report For: Case Report: Corpus callosal apraxia following acute ischemic stroke [version 1; peer review: 1 not approved]. Report a concern. Respond or Comment. Open Peer Review. Reviewer Status.