In the reference list, both the long title and the acronym or initialism must be included. For example:. Citations If you are quoting someone word-for-word or using someone else's ideas or statistics in your writing, you will need to reference it within the body of your work.
If the quotation is longer than 30 words, set it out like this: The post-war years were not a time of great innovation. As Ewing , p.
Ewing , p. Citing Someone Else's Quotation Sometimes an author will cite another author and you may want to use this in your assignment. Original text: 'Although Barnes sees the mods as a male-dominated youth culture Barnes, p. Reference list: Jenss, H.
Personal Communications References to personal communications such as letters, emails, interviews, or phone conversations can be included in assignments. In-text citation: The patient valued the knowledge and experience of other cancer patients more than medical information Wilson, P. Information From More Than One Source If you include the authors in the sentence, they are listed in chronological order by year of publication in brackets. Using Abbreviations If you are referring numerous times to an organisation with a long title, you may use the relevant acronym or initialism. Report a problem.
Once entering the park, the Cinderella Castle is a heavenly and magical view for all Disney guests to see.
Basking in its historical glory, many people are unaware that there are livable bedrooms at the top of the building. Can I start my research paper with a quote? Well, following the example above, you primarily write your piece of thought and then you support it with the evidence right away. You can also use some more information and incorporate a quotation it in the following way:.
It is currently available for VIPs, special guests, and occasional contest winners. In this example, the name of the source is mentioned, so you do not need any additional information in brackets. You should understand where to put commas and periods.
If you use quotation without mentioning the source or author in the brackets so-called parenthetical citation , you should put comma or period before the closing quotation mark. But if you use the parenthetical citation, they will go after it. However, if the quotation ends with an exclamation point or a question mark, you will put them before the parenthetical citation. It may look like this:.
Note that you should put a period after parenthetical citation because then it means your quote is not complete and it is considered a mistake. If you think the quote is too long, you can omit the text in the middle that you think is not useful, but be aware of showing that you dropped a part with ellipsis points:.
The square brackets are the opposite of ellipsis; they help to give additional information, make some minor changes, that can only support the meaning not drastically change what the author meant. You can see in the example below. Do not change words when you are using a direct quote; the text should be exactly the same as in the source. If you want to paraphrase, avoid using quotation marks. Even if the quote has a mistake in it, still copy the full text and just insert [sic] after the wrong word.
For example:. It is important to the conclusion, as well as an introduction, to be informative. Quotes are used to enrich your ideas, but they should not substitute them.
As long as your conclusion is mainly about your argument, and what you demonstrated, and why it matters, then adding a quote, which is relevant to these themes, is totally fine. A lot of aspects depend on the type of research work you are writing, but in order not to go wrong and make a mistake, better avoid using redundant quotations, just to stay safe.
Do not oversaturate your text with quotes. Sometimes it may seem like a right choice, and you feel that the quotes will fit perfectly, but you had better use them to provide evidence, not to water down the writing. Remember, your paper should primarily contain your own words, to quote only the most concise and worth remembering parts of sources.
There are different standards of how many quotes you can use in your work, but there should definitely be no more than 20 percent. For that reason, the following construction is incorrect:.
Sometimes, we can save ourselves so much of time by simply asking. Another great way to ensure you have the correct citation for your reference list is to use Google Scholar. Make sure you know what the standards are for the paper you are working on and apply it accurately. Reality : Turnitin receives over , papers daily, and no human reads the papers at Turnitin. The most commonly used is MLA, and it is presented here in the examples. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The percentage of college freshman who drop out is higher than The latter approach is preferable but not always possible, as in sports stories. For example:. Tater and Tot had the highest field goal percentages for the night, shooting 63 and 68 percent, respectively. Interest rates jumped from 6 to 9 percent. Would you say interest rates increased by 3 percent or by 3 percentage points? The latter is correct. Percent change is the ratio of two values the difference between the new value and the old value, divided by the old value. So you could correctly say either of the following:.
Interest rates increased by 50 percent. Interest rates increased by 3 percentage points.