An evaluation of a management training programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University. Export to EndNote. Abstract The evaluation of a management training programme for research scientists and senior technicians formed the basis of this applied research project.
Before, during and after measures were used to assess the knowledge, skills, attitudes and work behaviours of trainees and control group members in order to compare the changes which occurred as a result of the programme. Both formative and summative evaluation were incorporated into the experimental design and careful attention was paid to internal and external validity issues by the use of matched control groups, multiple measures of the dependent and independent variables, including both objective and subjective methods, self-reports and reports by trainees' superiors.
Repeated measures of knowledge, skills, attitudes and work behaviours were taken utilizing a longitudinal design and some replication was conducted with other groups of trainees at other times. The plan of approach involved an initial analysis of training needs, examination of the input to training including course content and training techniques, immediate and longer term evaluation of subjects' reactions to the programme and an assessment of the outcomes of training.
Outcome evaluation comprised measures of effectiveness at both immediate and intermediate levels with measurements taken immediately and at three, six and twelve months following training. Consumers, on their part, are moving away from partially hydrogenated oils, GMO food, and are looking for natural alternatives to artificial flavours and colours. Manufacturers in the food and beverages industry typically operate on low profit margins and high volume sales are thus an imperative to profitability. This is where the role of densely-populated emerging economies such as India, Brazil, Russia, and China comes into play.
Low profit margins continue to remain a challenge for companies in the food and beverages industry but a tightening regulatory environment will also compel companies to realign their operations to some extent. The food and beverages industry is also increasingly feeling the need to be more responsive to food security concerns. Macroeconomic factors such as burgeoning GDP, increasing consumer spending and changing lifestyle, taste, and preferences are expected to drive the industry over the forecast period.
APAC is forecast to witness the highest growth over next five years due to increasing urbanization, rising disposable income, expansion of stores, supporting economic factors, and availability of easy finance.
through effective training becomes imperative in order to maximize the job Of course, this thesis would not have been possible without the participation of the. I, the undersigned, declare that this thesis is my original work, prepared under the expected to have a highly organized and updated training program.
A combination of factors such as rising population and consumer spending is seen to impact the market dynamics significantly. This comprehensive guide from Lucintel provides readers with valuable information and the tools needed to successfully drive critical business decisions with a thorough understanding of the market's potential. This report will save Lucintel clients hundreds of hours in personal research time on a global market and it offers significant benefits in expanding business opportunities throughout the global food and beverage retail industry.
In a fast-paced ever-changing world, business leaders need every advantage available to them in a timely manner to drive change in the market and to stay ahead of their competition. This report provides business leaders with a keen advantage in this regard by making them aware of emerging trends and demand requirements on an annual basis.
Food and beverage processing in India has been a rising star in recent years. The industry employs 13 million workers directly. Value addition of food products is expected to increase from the current 8 per cent to 35 per cent by the end of The food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India-it is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth. The online food ordering business in India is in its nascent stage, but witnessing exponential growth. About An average household in India spent INR 41, on food.
It is also about the migration of the Made in India tag on food products traveling abroad. Indian food brands and fast moving consumer goods FMCGs are now increasingly finding prime shelf-space in the retail chains of the US and Europe. There is an awareness and concern for wellness and health, for high protein, low-fat, wholegrain, organic food. Zomato is now present in 22 countries and over cities around the globe. Percenatge It is now the third-largest pizza chain in India, after Domino's and Pizza Hut.
The company has also formulated plans to enter the dairy market. The Government plans to set up 42 such mega food parks across the country in next three to four years. Excise duty on plant and machinery for packaging and processing has been brought down to six per cent from 10 per cent. The major sectors in beverage industry in India are tea and coffee which are not only sold heavily in the domestic market but are also exported to a range of leading overseas markets..
Among the hot beverages manufactured in India, tea is the most dominant beverage that is ruling both the domestic and international market even today. Improvement in general infrastructure is also a must requirement for the industry to progress.
Each business needs to evaluate strengths and weaknesses periodically. In examining its pattern of strengths and weaknesses, clearly the business does not have to correct all of its weakness nor gloat about all of its strengths. The big question is whether the business should limits itself to those opportunities where it now possesses the required strengths or should consider better opportunities where it might have to acquire or develop certain strengths. A market opportunity is an area of need in which a company can perform profitably.
Opportunities can be listed and classified according to their attractiveness and the success probability. Mere competence does not constitute the competitive advantage. The best performing company will be one of that can generate the greatest customer value and sustain it over time. Some development in the external environment represents threats.
An environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavourable trend or development that would lead, in the absence of defensive marketing action, to sales or profit deterioration.
SWOT: Analysis is important technology by the company can reap its position future and can over comes its negative aspects. Therefore, swot analysis plays an important role of formulating the business strategies for any company, which is obvious best on its strength, weakness, opportunity and threat. Lack of Funds 2. No large network 3. Unskillful laborers Opportunity: India almost tops the Index on indicators of absolute food market size and growth. If infrastructure challenges can be overcome, India may also come to rival China as a production location to address broader Asian demand.
Rising level of urbanization and education creates opportunity. Increasing awareness in safe and packed products among people. Growing market of health conscious people in urban. Increasing demand of products among all segments. Threats: India still maintains some restrictions on foreign equity investment in food manufacturing. Additional regional compliance requirements i. Corruption remains an issue.
Economic environment. Government policies 3. Political environment 4. Social environment 5. New global products tracked with an "organic" claim have risen from 6. A surge in "free from" launches and "flexitarian" options also has been reported. A live webinar at 10 a. EDT on Nov.
Organic growth for clear label: "Clear label" established itself as a key trend in , with greater transparency and focus on simpler products with fewer artificial additives taking "clean label" to the next level, the market research firm notes. The biggest surge in new product development has been reported in organic products, indicating that this will be a key platform going forward in the short term, although the challenges involved might result in more beneficial platforms for clear label in the longer term, it adds.
Industries have little choice but to respond, and the recent surge in mainstream gluten-free products has been incredible, the market research firm notes. Other "free from" platforms are also gaining steam. The "flexitarian" effect: The rise of part-time vegetarians, who have reduced their meat consumption because of health, sustainability and animal welfare concerns, is having a major impact on new product activity.
This includes the technological development and promotion of better-tasting products more reminiscent of meat, as well as the use of alternative protein sources and more animal-friendly processes, the market research firm says. Processing the natural way: Established food processing practices that have been around for centuries also are in the spotlight.
They bring with them a natural and authentic image to counteract some of the negative perceptions of heavily processed foods, the market research firm says. The health benefits of fermented foods are seeing increasing awareness among western consumers. Newer technologies such as high- pressure processing HPP also could succeed if they are seen as a fresh alternative to using preservatives.
Green light for vegetables: Consumers know they need to eat more greens, but shy away because of taste expectations. Children can be encouraged to eat more through hidden vegetable products, while the rise of fusion smoothies and high vegetable pastas indicates that adults also can be encouraged to increase their intake, the market research firm says. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry.
Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Evolution of the Industry: Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented.
This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products. The soft drink industry is the exception to the rule, as it is quite concentrated. Although the beverage industry is fragmented, ongoing consolidation since the s is changing that. This shift began when companies in this manufacturing sector adopted mass production techniques that let them expand. Also during this time period there were advances in product packaging and processes that greatly increased product shelf life.
Air-tight containers for tea prevented absorption of moisture, which is the principle cause of loss of flavour. In addition, the advent of refrigeration equipment enabled lager beers to be brewed during the summer months. Economic Importance: The beverage industry employs several million people worldwide, and each type of beverage grosses billions of dollars in revenue each year.
Indeed, in several small, developing countries, the production of coffee is the major support of the entire economy. The process of harvesting raw materials, whether they be coffee beans, barley, hops or grapes, employs low-income, unskilled individuals or families. In addition to being their main source of income, the harvest determines a large part of their culture and lifestyle.
In contrast, the processing of the product involves automated and mechanized operations, usually employing a semi-skilled, blue-collar workforce. In the production facility and warehouse areas, some of the common jobs include packaging and filling machine operator, fork-lift operator, mechanic and manual labourer.
The training for these positions is completed onsite with extensive on-the-job instruction. As technology and automation evolve, the workforce diminishes in number and technical training becomes more important. The beverage industry for the most part distributes its products to wholesalers using common carriers. However, soft drink manufacturers usually employ drivers to deliver their products directly to individual retailers.
These drivers-sales workers account for about one-seventh of the workers in the soft drink industry. The more health-conscious atmosphere in Europe and North America in the s has led to a flat market in the alcoholic beverage industry, with demand shifting to non-alcoholic beverages. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, however, are expanding considerably in developing nations in Asia, South America and to some extent Africa. Because of this expansion, numerous local jobs are being created to meet production and distribution needs.
In many cases, various fruit juices are blended. Usually, the fruit is processed into a concentrate near where it is grown, then shipped to a fruit juice packager. Fruit juices can be sold as concentrates, frozen concentrates especially orange juice and as the diluted juice. Often sugar and preservatives are added. Once received at the processing plant, the oranges are washed, graded to remove damaged fruit, separated according to size and sent to the juice extractors. There the oils are extracted from the peel, and then the juice extracted by crushing.
The pulpy juice is screened to remove seeds and pulp, which often end up as cattle feed. Otherwise the juice is sent to evaporators, which remove most of the water by heat and vacuum, then chilled, to produce the frozen, concentrated orange juice. This process also removes many oils and essences which are blended back into the concentrate before shipping to the juice packager. The frozen concentrate is shipped to the packager in refrigerated trucks or tankers. Many dairies package orange juice using the same equipment used to package milk. The concentrate is diluted with filtered water, pasteurized and packaged under sterile conditions.
Depending on the amount of water added, the final product can be cans of frozen orange juice concentrate or ready-to-serve orange juice. Soft Drink Concentrate Manufacturing: Process overview Operations in a concentrate manufacturing plant can be divided into five basic processes: 1. Treating water 2.
Receiving raw materials 3. Concentrate manufacturing Concentrate and additives filling 5. Shipping finished products. Each of these processes has safety hazards that must be evaluated and controlled. Water is a very important ingredient in the concentrate and it must have excellent quality. Each concentrate plant treats water until it reaches the desired quality and is free from micro-organisms. Water treatment is monitored during all stages. When the plant receives the compounding ingredients, inspection, sampling and analysing of the ingredients in the quality-control department are begun.
Only materials that have passed the tests will be used in the concentrate manufacturing process. Some of the raw materials are received in tank trucks and require special handling. Also, packaging material is received, evaluated and analysed in the same way as the raw materials. The tanks have capacities of 50 gallons, 10, gallons and even more. These tanks are completely clean and sanitized at the time of mixing. Once the concentrate is manufactured, the filling stage is started. All the products are piped into the filling room. Filling machines are strictly cleaned and sanitized before the filling process starts.
Most of the filling machines are dedicated to specific container sizes.
The product is kept inside pipes and tanks at times during the filling process in order to avoid contamination. Each container should be labelled with the product name and handling hazards if necessary. Full containers are moved by conveyors to the packaging area. Containers are placed on pallets and wrapped in plastic or tied before they are stored. Besides the concentrates, additives to be used in the preparation of carbonated soft drinks are packed.
Many of these additives are packed in plastic bags and placed in boxes.
Once at the warehouse, the products are divided and prepared to be sent to the different bottling companies. These products should be labelled following all government regulations. The results of this study suggest that performing weeks of either complex or compound training is effective for improving vertical leap and power output; thus, coaches should choose the program which best suits their training schedules. Parents: This work has no parents. Tweet Share. Master's Papers Deposit your masters paper, project or other capstone work. Scholarly Articles and Book Chapters Deposit a peer-reviewed article or book chapter.
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